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淺談輾轉相除法 - Euclidean Algorithm

“In mathematics, the Euclidean algorithm, or Euclid’s algorithm, is an efficient method for computing the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers (numbers), the largest number that divides them both without a remainder. It is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, who first described it in his Elements (c. 300 BC). It is an example of an algorithm, a step-by-step procedure for performing a calculation according to well-defined rules, and is one of the oldest algorithms in common use. It can be used to reduce fractions to their simplest form, and is a part of many other number-theoretic and cryptographic calculations.”


輾轉相除法是基本數學運算之一,用於求兩數最大公因數(GCD)。原理採用Divide-and-Conquer Method,簡單可以說是兩個數字互相相減,最後剩下構成兩個數字的共通單位,就是最大公因數。以下就簡略的練習如何計算:



  • 直覺運算法
  • 交換法
  • 遞迴法


  • 保持用最大數除以較小的數,直到整除為止
int gcd(int a, int b) {
    while( a!=0 and b!=0 )
        if( a >= b ) { a = a%b; }
        else if( b > a ) { b = b%a; }
    return (a >= b) ? a : b;


  • 讓a保持被除數、b保持除數,相除之後互換
  • 當除數為 0,即被除數為最大公因數
int gcd(int a, int b) {
    while (b!= 0) {
        int r = a % b;
        a = b;
        b = r;
    return a;


  • 利用遞迴讓被除數a與除數b互換
if f (int a, int b) {
    if (b == 0) return a;
    return f(b, a%b);


[1] 輾轉相除法(Euclidean algorithm)

[2] Wiki: 輾轉相除法

[3] Divisor